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1918

1919

history - the first Palmer Raids were attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States - Socialist demonstrations in Berlin, Germany turn into an attempted communist revolution, Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are murdered following the Spartacist uprising - after a peace conference Treaty of Versailles is signed, ending World War I. (will never be ratified by the US) - beginning of the Irish War of Independence - Soviet troops occupy the Ukraine, the Polish-Soviet War begins - the first Communist International meets in Moscow - Benito Mussolini founds his Fascist political movement - British and Gurkha troops massacre 379 Sikhs in the Punjab in India - the Bavarian Soviet Republic is founded, Weimar Republic troops and the Freikorps occupy Munich and crush the Bavarian Soviet Republic - Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands on the Anatolian Black Sea coast, marking the start of the Turkish War of Independence - Afghanistan gains independence from the United Kingdom - the American Communist Party is established

culture - the first widely distributed and practical air cooled medium machine gun introduced to the US Military - Prohibition in the United States is authorized - XWA (now CINW), in Montreal, Quebec, becomes the first public radio station in North America to go on the air - Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and D.W. Griffith launch United Artists - sound-on-film technology is developed by three German inventors - the Bauhaus architectural movement is founded in Weimar, Germany by Walter Gropius - Felix the Cat appears in Feline Follies, making the first cartoon character - Hermann Hesse: Demian - Karl Kraus: Die letzten Tage der Menschheit (The Last Days Of Mankind) - Pierre-Auguste Renoir (†)

music - Josef Matthias Hauer devises his own twelve-tone technique of composition - Igor Stravinsky: Firebird Suite No. 1; Piano-Rag-Music for piano - Sergei Prokofiev: The Love for Three Oranges - Original Dixieland Jass Band brings New Orleans jazz to England - Ernest Ansermet writes an enthusiastic review of the Southern Syncopated Orchestra in London, singling out Sidney Bechet - one of the first serious pieces of jazz criticism - Ruggiero Leoncavallo (†)

musical instruments - the therminvox, the first electronic musical instrument is developed by Leon Theremin

1920

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